European capitals

Like the continent's states, Europe's capitals are among the oldest cities in the world and are today true centres of human culture and civilisation. Athens was a city-state of antiquity, an important centre of culture, democracy and science. Rome, London, Paris and Vienna emerged as urban centres and fortresses in the heyday of the Roman Empire, but most of today's capitals date from the Middle Ages and are fortified cities built to meet the challenges of the age, including Bucharest, Budapest, Madrid, Amsterdam, Berlin and many others.

Table showing the population and geographical location of capitals. 

*The table can be rearranged by clicking on the columns at the top of the table. 

Capital State Population (2018)[1] Latitude Longitude Altitude[2] Period of appearance First attestation
Amsterdam Netherlands 1 132 000 52° 22' 26" N 4° 53' 23" E -2 Middle Ages year 1300
Andorra la Vella Andorra 23 000 42° 30' 28" N 1° 31' 16" E 1 020 Middle Ages year sec. IX CENTURY
Ankara Turkey 4 919 000 39° 55' 12" N 32° 51' 15" E 872 antiquity year 2000 BC
Athens Greece 3 156 000 37° 57' 12" N 23° 44' 56" E 114 antiquity 7th millennium BC
Belgrade Serbia 1 389 000 44° 49' 3" N 20° 27' 48" E 109 antiquity year 269 BC
Berlin Germany 3 552 000 52° 31' 28" N 13° 24' 38" E 44 Middle Ages year sec. XIII
Bern Switzerland 422 000 46° 56' 53" N 7° 26' 51" E 549 Middle Ages year 1191
Bratislava Slovakia 430 000 48° 8' 54" N 17° 6' 24" E 161 Middle Ages year 907 AD
Brussels Belgium 2 050 000 50° 50' 48" N 4° 21' 0" E 26 Middle Ages year 700 AD
Bucharest Romania 1 821 000 44° 25' 58" N 26° 6' 15" E 79 Middle Ages year 1459
Budapest Hungary 1 759 000 47° 29' 53" N 19° 2' 24" E 96 Middle Ages Pest - first attestation 1148
Chisinau Republic of Moldova 510 000 47° 0' 20" N 28° 51' 27" E 57 Middle Ages year 1436
Copenhagen Denmark 1 321 000 55° 40' 33" N 12° 33' 56" E 17 Middle Ages year 1167
Dublin Ireland 1 201 000 53° 19' 59" N 6° 14' 56" W 11 Middle Ages year 841 AD
Helsinki Finland 1 279 000 60° 10' 9" N 24° 56' 25" E 28 modern period year 1550
Kiev Ukraine 2 957 000 50° 26' 43" N 30° 31' 7" E 173 Middle Ages year 482 AD
Lisbon Portugal 2 927 000 38° 43' 1" N 9° 8' 24" W 27 antiquity believed to have been founded by Phoenicians
Ljubljana Slovenia 286 000 46° 3' 4" N 14° 30' 18" E 297 Middle Ages year 1141
London United Kingdom 9 046 000 51° 30' 31" N 0° 0' 0" W 24 antiquity year 47 AD
Luxembourg Luxembourg 120 000 49° 36' 42" N 6° 7' 48" E 314 antiquity first bibliographical reference 963
Madrid Spain 6 497 000 40° 24' 59" N 3° 42' 9" W 673 Middle Ages cent. IX
Minsk Belarus 2 005 000 53° 54' 0" N 27° 34' 0" E 222 middle ages year 1067
Munich Monaco 39 000 43° 44' 0" N 7° 25' 0" E 24 Middle Ages Under the rule of the House of Grimaldi from 1297
Moscow Russian Federation 12 410 000 55° 45' 18" N 37° 37' 18" E 155 Middle Ages year 1147
Nicosia Cyprus 269 000 35° 9' 34" N 33° 22' 1" E 169 antiquity 672 BC
Oslo Norway 1 012 000 59° 54' 46" N 10° 44' 46" E 29 Middle Ages year 1048
Paris France 10 901 000 48° 51' 12" N 2° 20' 56" E 44 antiquity 3rd century BC
Podgorica Montenegro 177 000 42° 26' 28" N 19° 15' 49" E 47 Middle Ages year 1326
Prague Czech Republic 1 292 000 50° 5' 17" N 14° 25' 15" E 204 Middle Ages century IX
Reykjavík Iceland 216 000 64° 8' 8" N 21° 53' 43" W 21 modern year 1786
Riga Latvia 637 000 56° 56' 46" N 24° 6' 21" E 7 Middle Ages year 1201
Rome Italy 4 210 000 41° 53' 41" N 12° 28' 52" E 29 antiquity founded 753 BC
San Marino San Marino 4 000 43° 56' 0" N 12° 27' 0" E 701 antiquity 301 BC a monarchical community was formed here
Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina 343 000 43° 50' 55" N 18° 21' 23" E 510 Middle Ages year 1462
Skopje Macedonia, North 584 000 42° 0' 0" N 21° 26' 0" E 275 Middle Ages capital of the Serbian Empire from 1346-1371
Sofia Bulgaria 1 272 000 42° 41' 51" N 23° 19' 27" E 564 antiquity 1st century BC
Stockholm Sweden 1 583 000 59° 19' 57" N 18° 3' 54" E 33 middle ages year 1252
Tallinn Estonia 437 000 59° 26' 13" N 24° 45' 13" E 10 Middle Ages year 1219
Tirana Albania 476 000 41° 19' 39" N 19° 49' 8" E 108 modern period year 1614
Vaduz Liechtenstein 5 000 47° 8' 29" N 9° 31' 17" E 457 Middle Ages year 1322
Warsaw Poland 1 768 000 52° 13' 47" N 21° 0' 42" E 119 Middle Ages 13th century
Vatican Vatican 1 000 41° 54' 9" N 12° 27' 12" E 61 antiquity 4th century
Vienna Austria 1 901 000 48° 12' 23" N 16° 22' 15" E 196 antiquity 1st century BC
Vilnius Lithuania 536 000 54° 41' 21" N 25° 16' 47" E 103 Middle Ages 13th century
Zagreb Croatia 686000 45° 48' 52" N 15° 58' 41" E 141 Middle Ages year 1094

States with more than one capital

The Netherlands is the European state with two cities having a special status in the administration of the country. Amsterdam is the country's official capital, while The Hague is the seat of the country's bicameral parliament and is also home to all foreign embassies.